Chinese Journal of International Law
Submissions and Book Reviews
(1) As from around 12 March, all submissions must be made through this website: https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/cnjil ; questions may be sent to: Prof. Sienho Yee: sienhoATchinesejil.org; (2) Send book review inquiries first by email with “Book Review of [author name]” in the subject line to: Prof. Sienho Yee: sienhoATchinesejil.org.
On the SSCI since Jan. 2008, the Chinese JIL is a peer-reviewed journal, published 4 times a year. Please subscribe to e-table of contents for updates: https://academic.oup.com/my-account/email-alerts ; Invitations for manuscripts do not guarantee acceptance. All submissions go through the normal review process.
Conditions for submissions: When submitting a manuscript, each author represents that the submission is original and does not contain any unlawful or plagiarized materials, and, if the submission is accepted, assigns all copyrights to the Journal. The Journal does not require exclusive submission. If the paper is simultaneously submitted to other journals, the author shall inform the Editor-in-Chief of this fact. The review process can be very long. The first peer-review is usually completed within 8-12 weeks, but sometimes may take shorter, or longer, in some instances longer than 6 months. No royalty will be paid. Furthermore, each author represents that he or she has done a substantive check of all authorities and citations and that the submission is properly supported by these sources.
The Chinese JIL Style Guide (and More)
http://www.chinesejil.org/style.htm; version 20100214); template: www.chinesejil.org/template.doc (open this document, then in the “file” menu hit “save as” and you will be able to save this document in a location in your computer)
Rule 1. Overall policy. A peer-reviewed journal, the Chinese Journal of International Law (Chinese JIL) attempts to present papers of high quality, without regard to the status of the author; nor do we have a word limit as such. We prefer papers with rigorous analyses. Our overall style policy is: clarity, simplicity and consistency within each individual article. These rules are designed so that a reader can immediately understand the footnotes without carrying with him or her a book of style such as the US Bluebook to consult. We strongly recommend strict compliance to promote overall efficiency. For all contents: https://academic.oup.com/chinesejil .
Rule 1a(1). Copyright and other rights. When submitting a manuscript, each author represents that the submission is original, contains NO defamatory material and infringes NO existing copyright. The author shall inform the Editor-in-Chief if the paper is simultaneously submitted to other journals, in which case the Journal may decide not to review the manuscript. Copying language from other materials without quotation marks plus proper footnoting is prohibited, as violations of Rule 1a as well as Rule 1a(1). An illustration of this violation is for an author to copy the language of another author, without quotation marks, then in the footnote simply cite to that author’s work only.
Rule 1b. Innovative ideas and analyses; “pre-emption check”. Normally a good journal will attempt to publish papers with innovative ideas and analyses. This is however not always possible and so our Journal will publish very good ideas, very good analysis and very good source (especially first-hand) materials (such as a survey on Chinese practice in international law), usually not seen elsewhere. As a general journal aiming to stay here for a long time, we prioritize solid and innovative analyses that have staying power over hot topics. Interested authors are invited to conduct a “pre-emption check” on their proposed ideas and analyses to see whether they have been preempted by an earlier publication (that is to say, already proposed in an earlier publication). If so, yours will not be innovative anymore. We recommend two databases for this “check”: the Peace Palace Library Catalogue which contains entries for articles as well as for books from around the world, and WESTLAW (a full text database containing materials from the English speaking world, perhaps primarily from the USA). This check should be on materials already published in the particular journal for which your paper is written and also on the general literature. A good paper should take account of the general literature as well as the materials already published in the journal for which your paper is intended. Usually if you have not read more than 15 articles from our Journal, you may not have a good feel about the kind of papers we favor.
Rule 1b(1). Research teamwork. We disfavor publishing works by one member of a research team on a topic and of content similar to that of an earlier or simultaneous publication by another member of that research team. Substantial differences between the two works are required to justify publication. An author whose submission may give rise to this issue should notify the Editor-in-Chief in advance.
Rule 1c. “Best evidence” rule. Rule 1c(a). When giving sources for a position or a quotation, the best evidence rule should be applied; that is to say, the point or quotation should be directly supported by the sources given. The sources should be the “primary” sources or first-hand sources. Resort to second hand or third hand support is prohibited where first hand sources are available. Example 1: The State of Eden proclaims that it is an archipelagic state on March 13, 2008. (Footnote 1: 2777 Gazette of Eden (2008), 201 (A prohibited footnote would be: Footnote 1: John Doe, The Legal Regime of Archipelagic State, Chinese JIL (2008), 201)). Example 2: Mao Zedong said, “Don’t shoot prisoners.” (Footnote 1: Mao Zedong, 2 Selected Works (1977), 322 (A prohibited footnote would be: Footnote 1, Yang Dong, Chinese Revolutionaries, 9 Chinese JIL (2010), 77)). Rule 1c(b). When “primary” sources or first-hand sources are not available or not readily available, second hard support may be resorted but the footnotes should make this clear by noting “as quoted in [second hand sources]” or “as reported in [second hand sources]” (where appropriate). For example, Mao Zedong said, “Among all the Chinese dishes, I liked Dongpo Pork most.” (Footnote 1, As quoted in Edgar Snow, Red Star over China (1940), 39.)
Rule 1d. Accuracy and “substantive cite-checking”. Every quotation must be footnoted and every resort to official and other materials must be precise and accurate. The authors are required to do “substantive cite-checking” to ensure that all arguments are properly and accurately sourced and referenced, and up to date, before submitting their manuscripts. That is to say, every statement must be substantively supportable by analysis as well as the sources given. Every author is required to consider how his or her footnotes properly support the statements in the main text, sentence by sentence, and to ensure that they do so.
Rule 2. Use of template and format. We ask everyone to use this template (www.chinesejil.org/template.doc; open this document, then in the “file” menu hit “save as” and you will be able to save this document in a location in your computer) with all the settings undisturbed (these include: page setup; footnote style; text style). If you cannot download it, email: sienhoATchinesejil.org for a copy. Please use “normal” or “base text” style throughout the piece. The footnote style includes a hanging indent feature. After the footnote number, please press “space” once, and then press “tab” to ensure formatting. Many thanks for your cooperation. However, if, for some reason, you cannot use this template, you may submit your paper in another format in the beginning. Some general points on the template and format:
Fonts in main body text. Use “Garamond 11.5
point”. Use italics for case names (in
(2) Font in header: Garamond 9 point. No footer is used.
(3) Fonts in footnotes. Use regular “Garamond 11 point”. Do not use any special fonts such as italics or underlining for case names, titles of articles, journals or books; simply use the regular font. This applies to titles of articles in foreign languages. N.B., use italics only for emphasis and for foreign phrases within an English title. If an entire title is in French, the entire title should be in regular font. (This policy on font is from Columbia LR, which is liberating. Scholars should not spend too much time on attractions such as beautiful fonts.)
Rule 2b. Last name of a Chinese author when placed first (in the main text, footnotes, header or footer). As we know, Chinese people generally place their last names first, first names last. In order to make this apparent to those not familiar with Chinese names, this Journal attempts to capitalize the entire last name of when it is placed first, for example, WANG Tieya. This rule applies throughout a paper. When a Chinese author uses the Western style and places his or her last name last, it will be treated in the same way as a Western name, for example, Haopei Li.
Rule 3. Structure of the paper. We apply this Mandatory Style to the title and section headings. The structure of a normal paper consists of (1) Abstract and (2) the Body. We use footnotes, NOT endnotes. The structure of the paper should normally be as follows:
Abstract [no more than 300 words, succinctly summarizing your main arguments, not just mentioning the questions to be treated]
The Utopia doctrine asserts that Utopia as an ideal can promote peace, stability and human flourishing. A utopia is an imagined civic polity consisting of 3 main elements: transparency; legitimacy; and mass appeal. A utopian goal may help to improve the world but may drive the world mad. To take full advantage of the doctrine, conscientious policy-makers may want to take it easy and not engender exaggerated sense of exuberance. [For actual examples from the Journal, go to: https://academic.oup.com/chinesejil/issue ]
[The body of text shall use this style:]
II. The concept of utopia
II.A. The basic elements of the concept
II.B. The origin of the concept
II.B.i. The first use of the term
II.B.i.a. The oddity of it all
II.B.i.b. The inside story
II.B.ii. It will all be fine
II.B.ii.a. It will all be good for the future
II.B.ii.b. Possible pitfalls to guard against
III. The practical implications in the international context
(1) The main title is centered.
(2) All headings are “left-justified”, without any indentation.
(3) An auto-biographical footnote should be numbered *; if possible, please give your email address in this footnote, so that readers can contact you for discussion.
(4) Other footnotes start with 1. No end notes are used.
(5) There is NO page limit. Shorter pieces can be reviewed more quickly. The Journal has published papers as long as 68 pages, and as short as 2 pages. The most important factor is quality. Rigor may require length. But reflect on the famed letter writer’s apology to the recipient that “I am sorry I do not have time to write you a shorter letter”.
Rule 3b. Date of your paper and subsequent changes. In the auto-bio footnote, please state the date on which the paper is completed (normally the date on which the Journal and the author agree that the paper is already for type-setting by the publisher). Because of the tremendous costs involved in changing materials after type-setting, at the page-proofing stage, the authors are not supposed to make substantial substantive changes. Rather, you are supposed to correct mistakes only. Subsequent developments may be briefly noted, or briefly discussed in the form of a post-script at the end of this paper or in a footnote at the end of the paper. We request that the author notify the Editor-in-Chief of any material substantive changes made at page-proofing stage.
Rule 3d. Book reviews. Book reviews shall not follow the structure given above, but must follow this style guide as much as possible, otherwise. A book review should have no more than 1500 words (strictly enforced) and should be lightly footnoted, if at all. We recommend that a book review try to present the contents of the book first, understand its “design”, engage the arguments in it in the light of its genre and on its own terms in the first instance and then present the reviewer’s own critique. No more than two reviewers would be allowed for any book, and in the case of two reviewers, the reviewers should explain why there is a need for two. A sample book review can be found here: www.chinesejil.org/bai.pdf. Reviewers are reminded of the need to be fair and of possible liability issues, see discussions in Sienho Yee, Book Review Lawsuits and Book Review Standards: An Editorial Comment, 10 Chinese Journal of International Law (2011), 171-172 (free access: www.sienhoyee.org/yeebookreviewlawsuits.pdf). Reviewers are reminded of our rules against conflicts of interest, prohibiting any blood or intimate relationships, immediate supervisor/supervisee relationships (professor/supervisee; boss/immediate subordinate), or small work group memberships (same law school, same institute, etc.) between the person reviewing a book and the author of that book. Authors of books for review should NOT directly contact any potential reviewers; they may send inquiries to the Editor-in-Chief at: sienhoATchinesejil.org. Reviewers should also contact the Editor-in-Chief before deciding to review a book. (From September 2022, we will use a new format for book reviews: www.chinesejil.org/bookreviewformat.doc )
Rule 4. Quotations. We use double quotes (single quotes within double quotes), like: “God said, ‘Let there be light.’” However, single quotes are used if they are in the original text quoted.
4b. Alteration in quotations. Any alteration to a quote (anything changed
or added to a quote by the author including adding paragraph or page numbers)
that is placed within a normal quotation or a block quotation must be indicated
by “[ ... ]”, not “( ... )”. For example, “This is not too nice.
[Para.10.]” (If the addition of “para
Rule 5. Footnoting.
Every quotation must be footnoted. The authors are reminded
Rule 5b. Sample citations in footnotes:
(1) UN Charter, art. 2(4).
(2) ILC Draft Articles on State Responsibility, art. 48.
(4) VCLT, above n.3, art. 31.
Sovereignty over Mars (
(6) China—Publications, WTO AB Report, WT/DS363/AB/R (21 Dec. 2009), para.99; Panel Report, WT/DS363/R (9 Aug. 2009), para.9.
(7) Tom S. Mor, Opinio Juris Is Not Necessary, in: Li Haopei (ed.), Sources (1975), 10 (commenting on Johnny Musketeer) [N.B.: in edited works, citations must be to the individual chapters, with authorship clearly indicated as in this example for each chapter, not just the editor].
(8) Tom S. Mor, ibid., 11.
(9) Tom S. Mor, Opinio Juris Is Probably Necessary, 101 Columbia LR (1995), 21, 104-05 (“no one is willing to say expressly that it is not necessary”).
(10) Tom S. Mor, Opinio Juris Is Now Necessary, 99 Chinese JIL (2101), 999, 1011 n.888.
(11) Tom S. Mor, Opinio Juris Is Now Necessary, 99 Chinese JIL (2101), para.23.
(12) Tom S. Mor, 5 Chronicles of Other People’s Opinion (1999), 249.
(13) GA Res 99999 (2993).
(14) Gug v. Hug,
(15) Tom S. Mor, above n.5, 888. (Never use “loc. cit., 2.” or “op.
(16) Tom S. Mor, below n.222, and text thereto. (Never use “loc. cit.,
2.” or “op. cit.,
(17) On natural law, see below Part I.B.ii., and text to nn.33-39.
(18) Christine Gray, The New Bush Doctrine, 1 Chinese JIL (2002), 444 (www.chinesejil.org/gray.pdf).
(19) Christa White, The Old Boy’s Doctrine: Complete Bankruptcy of Prevention, 99 Chinese JIL (2100), 222.
(20) LIN Wenzhong, The Bush Doctrine, 99 Zhongguo
(21) LIN Wenzhong, Zhongguo Gaige [The
(1) Volume numbers always precede immediately the title of the book or journal: Shabtai Rosenne, 3 Law and Practice (1997), 1400.
Dates of publication are always in parentheses
(except when citing to ICJ Reports which should be, as used by the ICJ itself,
in this format, “ICJ Reports
(3) Page numbers: always put a comma before a page number.
(4) Internal references to different sections of the author’s own article must be made to Parts, or Sections, or texts to footnotes (not to page numbers) in order to avoid confusion in typesetting. Furthermore, the whole name of the author, rather than just the last name should be spelled out (e.g., Tom S. Mor, above n.5, 888).
(5) Citations to web documents should are as simply as possible, and placed in parentheses, and without the hyperlink placed in it. E.g., Christine Gray, The New Bush Doctrine, 1 Chinese JIL (2002), 444 (www.chinesejil.org/gray.pdf). [There is no need for http; “available at”, etc.; the date of the visit is important as TIME is of the essence.] Please try to specify paragraph numbers when page numbers are not available from an htm file.
(6) First name, middle initial and last names in footnotes: (a) when citing to an author for the first time, always try to give the first name and middle initials of any individual (we are often surprised that people who have the same last names also like to have the same first names); (b) when referenced to another footnote, then just last name is sufficient.
(7) Book chapters: use “in:” to indicate the book: Tom Mor, Opinio Juris, in: Li Haopei (ed.), Sources (1975), 45.
(8) Between the main title and a subtitle, there should be a “:” (example 5(b)(19).
(9) Journals and books published in Chinese should be specified in Chinese pinyin and then followed by an English translation in brackets (examples 5(b)(20) and 5(b)(21)), but the titles of articles published in Chinese need only be specified by their English translation. This rule aims to avoid confusion resulting from using only the English translation of titles of books and journals.
Rule 5d. Citations to paragraphs. Whenever an original paper or document contains paragraph numbers, every citation to parts of that paper or document must indicate the paragraph numbers.
Rule 5e. Biographical footnote. In the biographical footnote, to be numbered *, the author is encouraged to provide his or her current affiliation and corresponding email address, to indicate the date of completion of the paper, and also to indicate any other info regarding the paper such as acknowledgement for funding, provided that such should always be simple and reasonable (the Editor-in-Chief has the right to decide what is reasonable in this regard).
Rule 6. Titles of individuals. You are required to make a distinction between the capacities in which an individual expresses an opinion. This rule is necessary because such differing capacities have differing impacts on the formation of international law.
6b. For official persons, specify titles. When a view was put forward by an individual in
his or her official capacity, the official title must be indicated. For example, (1) In
Rule 7. Cases. Follow official citations except that if the case is from a national court, add the name of the State before the name of the Court before the date, e.g., (UK H.L. 2002). It is preferable to have the full case name at least once in your article. When a case name appears in the main text, it should be italicized. In the footnotes, however, it should be in regular font.
7b. WTO cases. In these cases, usually a subject matter is
given; there is NO “A v. B” in the title. A dash (–) is used. A short form
citation can be: China—Publications, WTO AB Report, WT/DS363/AB/R (21 Dec.
2009), para.99; Panel Report, WT/DS363/R (9 Aug. 2009), para.9. A long form is:
China–Measures Affecting Trading Rights and Distribution Services for Certain
Publications and Audiovisual Entertainment Products (China–Publications), WTO
AB Report, WT/DS363/AB/R (21 Dec. 2009), para.99.
Rule 8. Official documents. Follow the official citations used in these documents. Use: “GA Res” for General Assembly resolution; “SC Res” for Security Council resolution.
Rule 9. Abbreviations. Try to follow the official abbreviations if available. Do not use periods in the abbreviations of titles and organizations, but use periods in the abbreviations of Latin phrases. For example, use “e.g.” for “for example”; but use “UN” (not U.N.) for “United Nations”. Some commonly used abbreviations follow:
(1) “ICJ” for “International Court of Justice”;
(2) “ICC” for “International Criminal Court”;
(3) “ITLOS” for “International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea”;
“ICTY” for “International Criminal Tribunal for
“ICTR” for “International Criminal Tribunal for
(6) “ILC” for “International Law Commission”;
(7) “ILA” for “International Law Association”.
Rule 9b. Abbreviations within a paper. Abbreviations that are frequently used within a paper but not easily understood by an educated non-specialist and those abbreviations for terms used in a language system other than English should be listed in the auto-bio footnote (E.g., In this paper, the following abbreviations are used: ABC, for “American-born Chinese”; AFP, “Agence France Presse”; AJDA, “Actualités juridiques de droit administratif”; EFEO, “Ecole française d’Extrême Orient”; IDI, “Institut de droit international”; MSH, “Maison des Sciences humaines”; PUF, “Presses universitaires de France”; RIDP, “Revue internationale de droit public”; RSC, “Revue de sciences criminelles et de droit pénal comparé”; RUDH, “Revue universelle des droits de l’homme”).
Rule 10. Journal titles. When abbreviating journal titles, keep the unique components of a title but abbreviate the other words in it. For example, use “Chinese JIL” for “Chinese Journal of International Law”; “Cambridge LJ” for “Cambridge Law Journal”; “Harvard JIL” for “Harvard Journal of International Law”; “Revue Belge DI” for “Revue Belge de droit international”; “Max Planck YUNL” for “Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law”; etc. This rule is intended to make it possible for a reader to spot the title of journals without referring to list of abbreviations, etc.
(1) “LR” for “Law Review”;
(2) “JIL” for “Journal of International Law”;
(3) “JTL” for “Journal of Transactional Law”;
(4) “JILP” for “Journal of International Law and Policy”;
(5) “CL” for “Comparative Law”;
(6) “YIL” for “Yearbook of International Law” or “Year Book of International Law”;
(7) “JLS” for “Journal of Legal Studies”.
Rule 10b. As exceptions to this Rule 10 on journal titles, you may (but need not) use the following:
(1) “AFDI” for “Annuaire français de Droit international”;
(2) “AJIL” for “American Journal of International Law”;
(3) “BYIL” or “BYBIL” for “British Year Book of International Law”;
(4) “Chinese JIL” for “Chinese Journal of International Law” ( Please note that the Chinese JIL does not use “CJIL” as its abbreviation);
(5) “EJIL” for “European Journal of International Law”;
“FMPRC” for “the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of
the People’s Republic of
(7) “EPIL” for “Encyclopedia of Public International Law”;
(8) “Hague Lectures” or “Recueil des Cours” or “RCADI” for “Recueil des Cours de l’Académie de la Haye (RCADI)” or “Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law”;
(9) “ILM” for “International Legal Materials”;
(10) “ICLQ” for “International and Comparative Law Quarterly”;
(11) “ILR” for “International Law Reports”;
(12) “UNYB” for “United Nations Yearbook”;
(13) “ICJYB” for “International Court of Justice Yearbook”;
(14) “ICTYJR” for “ICTY Judicial Reports”;
(15) “ILCYB” for “Yearbook of the International Law Commission”;
(16) “NJW” for “Neue Juristische Wochenschrift”;
(17) “RGDIP” for “Revue générale de droit international public”;
(18) “UNJYB” for “United Nations Juridical Yearbook”;
for “Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law”.
Rule 11. Unregulated situations. Apply a rule that governs the situation that is closest to an unregulated situation. Comments are invited to: sienhoATchinesejil.org.
This style guide has been prepared by Sienho Yee for the Chinese Journal of International Law.